CANNABIS CULTURE – “Now that hemp has lastly arrived at its long-sought standing as a authorized crop and commodity, to what extent will it deviate from the utopian imaginative and prescient that animated the advocates who fought for it a technology in the past?”

– Invoice Weinberg, HEMP: FROM MYTHOS TO MONOCULTURE, August 27th, 2020

Invoice Weinberg is a long-time hashish activist and a hero of mine. He wrote for such periodicals as Excessive Occasions and Overthrow starting within the Eighties, and performs a selfless service sustaining such web sites as http://countervortex.org/, which is a evaluation of geopolitics from a left-wing perspective, and https://www.globalganjareport.com/, a one-man hashish data mission. 

Invoice at all times does nice work, and I not often disagree with him on issues (our variations are primarily restricted to conspiracy vs. coincidence theories or whether or not left wingers are evil/fatally flawed or simply ignorant about some matters) however he actually screwed up his final analysis on hemp ethanol – a lot so it impressed me to jot down a rebuttal. 

Invoice wrote an article for Undertaking CBD entitled: “HEMP: FROM MYTHOS TO MONOCULTURE – The Curious Cultural Trajectory of Industrial Hashish”

https://www.projectcbd.org/tradition/hemp-mythos-monoculture

after which reposted the article on his World Ganja Report web site. 

https://globalganjareport.com/content material/from-mythos-to-monoculture

Invoice made 5 main errors that require correction. 

Mistake #1: Hemp biodiesel is dear, however hemp ethanol is approx. 5 instances cheaper than gasoline. 

Weinberg writes: 

“Eric Steenstra acknowledges this actuality: ‘Petroleum remains to be grime low cost, so it doesn’t appear to be the financial circumstances are there. Hemp biodeisel is much more costly than gasoline.’”


That is true, which is why it’s unfair to judge hemp gas on hemp biodiesel. Hemp biodiesel is created from hemp seed – which is simply too beneficial as a meals to function a gas. Hemp ethanol is created from the stalk, and it’s a lot, less expensive. Based on the US authorities, the common value of gasoline per gallon is $2.17. 

https://www.eia.gov/petroleum/gasdiesel/

https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/v5-284.html

This, after all, is the value with out considering the prices of local weather destabilization, oil wars, oil spill cleanup, most cancers from the oil trade and all the opposite “externalities” that merely don’t exist with hemp ethanol. 

Biofuel consultants estimate that the price of making hemp ethanol lies someplace between a excessive of $1.37 per gallon and a low of 0.33 cents per gallon when all tax credit and technological advances are accounted for: 

“Based on biofuel knowledgeable Tim Castleman, hemp ethanol might be produced for 1.37 per gallon plus the price of the feedstock, with technological enhancements and tax credit lowering the value one other greenback or so per gallon!” CIFAR Convention XIV, “Cracking the Nut: Bioprocessing Lignocellulose to Renewable Merchandise and Power”, June 4, 2001

http://fuelandfiber.com/Hemp4NRG/Hemp4NRGRV3.htm (useless hyperlink) http://potfacts.ca/hemp-ethanol-is-about-five-times-cheaper-than-gasoline/

“Hemp Cellulose for Ethanol: One other method will contain conversion of cellulose to ethanol, which may be accomplished in a number of methods together with gasification, acid hydrolysis and a know-how using engineered enzymes to transform cellulose to glucose, which is then fermented to make alcohol. Nonetheless one other method utilizing enzymes will convert cellulose on to alcohol, which ends up in substantial course of value financial savings.

Present prices related to these conversion processes are about $1.37[vi]per gallon of gas produced, plus the price of the feedstock. Of this $1.37, enzyme prices are about $0.50 per gallon; present analysis efforts are directed towards discount of this quantity to $0.05 per gallon. There’s a Federal tax credit score of $0.54 per gallon and quite a few different numerous incentives accessible. Conversion charges vary from a low of 25-30 gallons per ton of biomass to 100 gallons per ton utilizing the newest know-how.”

https://twistedeconomix.wordpress.com/2012/01/16/hemp-biomass-for-energy-with-new-farm-bill/ 

Simply to drive that time residence, the low value for hemp ethanol – 33 cents per gallon, is about 6.6 instances cheaper than the present value for gasoline at depressed costs – loads of wiggle room for retailers to make their margins, with sufficient of a margin to present the patron substantial financial savings. 

Mistake #2 – the veracity of how hemp ethanol is carbon-negative.

Weinberg writes: “Neither is it clear that on steadiness biofuels put any much less carbon into the environment than gasoline.”

Weinberg says he has learn my article on simply how carbon detrimental hemp ethanol is. If he has learn it, he has completely ignored the proof of this being the case.  

“Every crop produces as a lot oxygen as it is going to later produce of CO2 if each little bit of it’s burned as gas, making a balanced cycle. Moreover, hemp deposits 10 p.c of its mass within the soil as roots and as much as 30 p.c as leaves which drop through the rising season. Which means some 20 to 40 p.c extra oxygen may be produced every season than will later be consumed as gas – a internet acquire in clear air. Name it a ‘reverse greenhouse impact’.” (22) 

Newer evaluations of hemp as a carbon sink contemplate it the “very best choice” (23) and “extra environment friendly than agro-forestry” (24) and that it absorbs C02 “4 instances quicker than a forest”. (25) As one analysis group put it; 

“As world CO2 ranges rise, hashish (hemp) vegetation develop bigger naturally. For each ton grown above-ground, one other half a ton of carbon is saved within the soil as root mass, the place it belongs.” (26)

 https://www.cannabisculture.com/content material/2020/01/29/hemp-can-still-save-the-world/

Weinberg quotes Conrad saying “and a few 10% of the plant mass stays within the floor, within the roots.” however ignores what he mentioned about hemp leaves (not utilized in gas manufacturing) accounting for as much as one other 30 p.c of the C02 being sequestered. That’s lots of carbon to disregard. 

Mistake #3 – equating corn ethanol with hemp ethanol. 

Weinberg writes: “Hemp could also be much less fertilizer-intensive than corn, however that doesn’t make it exempt from the basic issues, in Smolker’s view.”

Weinberg ignores all of the proof that hemp is FAR superior to corn as an ethanol crop – over 15 instances higher: 

Hemp is a superior vitality crop to corn for a lot of causes. Hemp: A) doesn’t want as a lot fertilizer or water as corn, switchgrass or different vitality crops, (17) B) doesn’t require the costly drying required of corn and sugar cane, (18) C) may be grown the place different vitality crops can’t, (19) D) has lengthy been identified to be the lowest-moisture highest-cellulose crop – perfect for gas manufacturing. The hemp stalks are “over 75% cellulose” in keeping with a 1929 paper from Schafer and Simmonds with extra conservative estimates indicating the hurds being between 32% and 38% p.c cellulose, whereas the bark is between 53% and 74%, (20) E) is way more vitality environment friendly than corn. One estimate states that corn has a 34 p.c vitality acquire, whereas hemp has a 540 p.c vitality acquire. (21) This implies hemp is almost 16 instances as environment friendly an vitality crop as corn! 

Hemp Can Still Save the World

Mistake #4 – Weinberg ignores the impact of factoring the well being and environmental prices of elevating livestock into land availability. 

Weinberg quotes a biofuel skeptic: “It takes lots of land to transform any type of biomass into sufficient gas to run cars, so I don’t suppose that’s going to make an enormous quantity of distinction when it comes to the general equation of utilizing vegetation for gas.”

Weinberg doesn’t clarify why it could be unattainable to easily issue the well being and environmental prices into the price of elevating livestock, thus liberating up greater than sufficient land to make use of hemp as a gas crop: 

Based on one supply, the USA has 60 million acres of idle arable land. (34) Based on one other supply, the USA has 52 million acres left fallow, 38.1 million acres for ethanol manufacturing (principally from corn), 127.4 million acres for livestock feed, 21.5 million acres for wheat exports, 13.6 million for “cotton/non-food”, 62.8 million acres for different grain & livestock feed exports, 77.3 million acres for home meals manufacturing, for a complete 391.5 million acres of cropland. (35) Separate from all this land use is livestock grazing land – which is in depth. (36) 

If the well being and environmental prices of every product had been factored into the value tag and over-regulation of hemp was eliminated, hemp would all of the sudden substitute a lot of those different crops. Fallow land might be changed with hemp ethanol farming that was both area retted or biochar-amended, as a way to replenish soils whereas on the similar time hemp would choke out all of the weeds. Corn for ethanol would get replaced with hemp for ethanol – a way more water and vitality environment friendly selection. Livestock – as a result of it’s environmental prices – would turn out to be costlier, and hemp seed would then all of the sudden turn out to be a preferable supply for protein – and one may get each hempseed and hemp ethanol from the identical crop. Cotton – which is pesticide and water intensive – would get replaced with hemp for material. (37) 

One estimate for a way a lot US land is required to provide sufficient biomass vitality to fulfill US wants is “6-8% of the land space of the 48 contiguous 48 states”. (38) For comparability, 41% of US land is used to feed and graze livestock. (39) One other solution to calculate the world wanted is to start out with the truth that an acre of hemp can produce the equal of a thousand gallons of gasoline. (40) In 2012, the individuals of the USA used 134 billion gallons of gasoline (41) down from a peak of 142 billion in 2007. At one thousand gallons per acre, this might require 134 million acres of hemp ethanol-growing land to switch. For those who add up all of the fallow land, corn ethanol land, cotton land and half the livestock feed land, you get 167.4 million acres – greater than sufficient to turn out to be vitality self-sufficient. 

A willingness to issue within the well being and environmental prices into the price of every product is required to evolve right into a sustainable species. We’re confronted with being compelled to think about the ecology, the setting and the wellbeing of ourselves, farmers and future generations as a way to survive. Many indigenous cultures have these ecological issues as foundations of their non secular beliefs (42) – it’s not unattainable to think about a worldwide tradition rising with the identical ecological basis inside each it’s financial and religious communities. 

 https://www.cannabisculture.com/content material/2020/01/29/hemp-can-still-save-the-world/

Mistake #5 – Weinberg requires “a smoking gun” – a doc proving {that a} resolution was made within the curiosity of the few on the expense of the numerous – for the problem of “conspiracy” behind hemp prohibition to be related. However a decrease normal is warranted – merely the presence of a “possible battle of curiosity” is sufficient to justify an exploration of the proof, and an try to eradicate such conflicts within the current and future. 

Your complete means of the creation of the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 is fraught with habits that solely corruption can clarify: 

In 1930, a 38 yr previous named Harry Anslinger grew to become the founding commissioner of the Treasury division’s Federal Bureau of Narcotics. His spouse’s distant relative was head of the Treasury on the time – Andrew Mellon. 

Anslinger’s spouse, Margaret, was distantly associated to Andrew William Mellon by the wedding of her aunt and her uncle into the Negley household. Margaret’s aunt, Sarah Gerst (1872-1954), married Edward Cox Negley (1874-1942). Edward Cox Negley was the great-grandson of John Jacob Negley. Margaret’s uncle, Eugene Gerst (1864-1942), married Kate Edna Negley (1871-1940). Kate Edna Negley was the great-granddaughter of John Jacob Negley. In different phrases, Margaret’s aunt and uncle married Negley cousins.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3AHarry_J._Anslinger#Mrs._Harry_J._Anslinger_-_Mellon_connection?

Mellon was additionally the pinnacle of Gulf Oil and the Mellon Financial institution, which might assist finance the take over of Basic Motors by DuPont within the Twenties, and facilitate the creation of the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937, which might hold DuPont’s new invention – Nylon – and Mellon’s investments in oil secure from having to compete with hemp fibers and hemp ethanol. 

David Malmo-Levine, “Current Historical past”, The Pot Ebook – A Full Information to Hashish, edited by Julie Holland, 2010, Park Avenue Press, Rochester, Vermont, pp. 31-32

https://books.google.ca/books?id=tV0oDwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=fals

Hemp is, in spite of everything, the most effective gas crop, and at the moment has the very best supply of cellulose of any vitality crop utilized in temperate zones. 

Multi-criteria analysis of lignocellulosic area of interest crops to be used in biorefinery processes, Could 2011, Stephan Piotrowski, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Chemiepark Knapsack, Industriestraße, 50354 Hürth, Germany, www.nova-Institut.de/nr, [email protected], p. 21

http://www.biocore-europe.org/file/BIOCORE%20Multi-criteria%20evaluation%20of%20niche%20crops.pdf

https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/v5-284.html

Coincidence theorists imagine conflicts of curiosity corresponding to this are unintentional, and distinctive, and infrequently acted upon. College students of historical past will observe, nevertheless, that there are only a few unintentional billionaires. The never-successfully-refuted battle of curiosity was uncovered by Jack Herer within the Emperor Wears No Garments, a guide that spawned the hemp motion of the Nineties, which itself gave rise to the medical and recreation pot actions that arose across the time of the brand new millennium. Herer uncovered the battle of curiosity between the Dupont’s responsibility to it’s shareholders and it’s skill to impact social coverage to the short-term good thing about it’s shareholders and to the long-term detriment of humanity; 

In DuPont’s 1937 Annual Report back to its stockholders, the corporate strongly urged continued funding in its new, however readily accepted, petrochemical artificial merchandise. DuPont was anticipating “radical adjustments” from “the income elevating energy of presidency… transformed into an instrument for forcing acceptance of sudden new concepts of commercial and social reorganization.” (DuPont Firm, annual report, 1937) … 

This prospect was alluded to through the 1937 Senate hearings by Matt Rens, of Rens Hemp Firm:

Mr. Rens: Such a tax would put all small producers out of the enterprise of rising hemp, and the proportion of small producers is appreciable… the actual objective of this invoice is to not elevate cash, is it?


Senator Brown: Effectively, we’re sticking to the proposition that it’s.


Mr. Rens: It can value 1,000,000.


Senator Brown: Thanks. (Witness Dismissed)

… Within the secret Treasury Division conferences carried out between 1935 and 1937 prohibitive tax legal guidelines had been drafted and methods plotted. ‘Marijuana’ was not banned outright; the legislation known as for an “Occupational excise tax upon offers, and a switch tax upon dealings in marijuana”.


Importers, producers, sellers and distributors needed to register with the Secretary of the Treasury and pay the occupational tax. Transfers had been taxed at $1 an oz; $200 an oz if the supplier was unregistered. Gross sales to an unregistered taxpayer had been prohibitively taxed. On the time, “uncooked drug” hashish offered for one greenback an oz. The yr was 1937. New York State had precisely one narcotics officer.

After the Supreme Court docket resolution of March 29, 1937, upholding the prohibition of machine weapons by means of taxation, Herman Oliphant made his transfer. On April 14, 1937 he launched the invoice on to the Home Methods and Means Committee as an alternative of to the opposite acceptable committees corresponding to meals and drug, agriculture, textiles, commerce and so forth.

The explanation might have been that Methods and Means is the one committee to ship its payments on to the Home flooring with out the act having to be debated upon by different committees.

Methods and Means Chairman Robert L. Doughton, a key DuPont ally, shortly rubber-stamped the key Treasury invoice and despatched it crusing by means of Congress to the President.” 

Chapter 4: The Final Authorized Days of Hashish in The Emperor Wears no Garments: The Authoritative Historic Document of the Hashish Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Nonetheless Save the World by Jack Herer, 11th version, 2000, pp. 25-33, see additionally: Current Historical past by David Malmo-Levine in The Pot Ebook: A Full Information to Hashish edited by Dr. Julie Holland (2010) pp. 30-32

Anybody who dared query any a part of their narrative – anybody who didn’t subscribe to their agenda – was castigated by these concerned in crafting the laws after which ignored. For instance, the Could 4th, 1937 testimony of Dr. William C. Woodard, the authorized council for the American Medical Affiliation: 

Mr. Lewis: Are there any substitutes for the latter psychological use?

Dr. Woodward: I do know of none. That use, by the best way, was acknowledged by John Stuart Mill in his work on psychology, the place he referred to the flexibility of Hashish or Indian hemp to revive previous reminiscences, and psychoanalysis will depend on revivification of hidden reminiscences.

That there’s a certain quantity of narcotic dependancy of an objectionable character nobody will deny. The newspapers have known as consideration to it so prominently that there should be some grounds for there statements. It has shocked me, nevertheless, that the info on which these statements have been based mostly haven’t been introduced earlier than this committee by competent main proof. We’re referred to newspaper publications in regards to the prevalence of marihuana dependancy. We’re instructed that using marihuana causes crime.

However but nobody has been produced from the Bureau of Prisons to indicate the variety of prisoners who’ve been discovered hooked on the marihuana behavior. An knowledgeable inquiry reveals that the Bureau of Prisons has no proof on that time.

You may have been instructed that college youngsters are nice customers of marihuana cigarettes. Nobody has been summoned from the Kids’s Bureau to indicate the character and extent of the behavior, amongst youngsters.

Inquiry of the Kids’s Bureau reveals that they’ve had no event to research it and know nothing significantly of it.

Inquiry of the Workplace of Training— they usually definitely ought to know one thing of the prevalence of the behavior among the many faculty youngsters of the nation, if there’s a prevalent behavior— signifies that they’ve had no event to research and know nothing of it.

Furthermore, there may be within the Treasury Division itself, the Public Well being Service, with its Division of Psychological Hygiene. The Division of Psychological Hygiene was, within the first place, the Division of Narcotics. It was transformed into the Division of Psychological Hygiene, I believe, about 1930. That individual Bureau has management at the moment of the narcotics farms that had been created about 1929 or 1930 and got here into operation just a few years later. Nobody has been summoned from that Bureau to present proof on that time.

Casual inquiry by me signifies that they’ve had no document of any marihuana of Hashish addicts who’ve ever been dedicated to these farms.

The bureau of Public Well being Service has additionally a division of pharmacology. For those who need proof as to the pharmacology of Hashish, that clearly is the place the place you will get direct and first proof, quite than the oblique rumour proof.

However we should admit that there’s this slight dependancy with presumably and possibly, I’ll admit, a bent towards a rise.

Dr. Woodward would proceed to keep up that the proof of hurt from hashish didn’t exist, and the individuals crafting the Marijuana Tax Act didn’t like just a little factor like an absence of proof of an issue get in the best way of constructing a terrific effort to cease that drawback. They claimed Dr. Woodward’s efforts to inform the reality in regards to the medical results of pharmaceutical hashish or avenue weed was uncooperative:

Mr. Dingell: We all know that it’s a behavior that’s spreading, significantly amongst kids. We be taught that from the pages of the newspapers. You say that Michigan has a legislation regulating it. We have now a State legislation, however we don’t appear to have the ability to get anyplace with it, as a result of, as I’ve mentioned, the behavior is rising. The variety of victims is rising annually.

Dr. Woodward: There isn’t a proof of that.

Mr. Dingell: I’ve not been impressed by your testimony right here as reflecting the sentiment of the highclass members of the medical career in my State. I’m assured that the medical career within the State of Michigan, and in Wayne County significantly, or in my district, will subscribe wholeheartedly to any legislation that can suppress this factor, regardless of the very fact that there’s a $1 tax imposed.

Dr. Woodward: If there was any legislation that may completely suppress the factor, maybe that’s true, however when the legislation merely comprises provisions that impose a ineffective expense, and doesn’t accomplish the end result—-

Mr. Dingell (interposing): That’s merely your private opinion. That is kindred to the opinion you entertained on the subject of the harrison Narcotics Act.

Dr. Woodward: If we had been requested to cooperate in drafting it—-

Mr. Dingell: You aren’t cooperating on this in any respect. 

Assertion of Dr. William C. Woodward, Legislative Counsel, American Medical Affiliation, Chicago, Unwell., TAXATION OF MARIHUANA, Tuesday, Could 4, 1937, Home of Representatives, Committee on Methods and Means, Washington, D.C. http://druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/taxact/woodward.htm

Coincidence theorists may try to elucidate away such actions by arguing {that a} bias towards hashish was in charge – a bias so highly effective that one would disregard the knowledgeable testimony of the consultant of the American Medical Affiliation. A much more seemingly situation is that those that paid the piper – those that financed the elections of the representatives accountable for marijuana prohibition – known as the tune. Rockefeller was American’s first billionaire. 

https://www.forbes.com/sites/chasewithorn/2017/09/19/the-first-forbes-list-see-who-the-richest-americans-were-in-1918/#6c1531af4c0d

Based on Morris Bealle, the Rockefeller household “financed Roosevelt’s unique foray into politics”

http://docshare.tips/the-drug-story-morris-a-beale_58b605b1b6d87f5dac8b4e63.html?utm_source=docshare&utm_medium=sidebar&utm_campaign=58a5e373b6d87f7d5d8b4a0f

Roosevelt signed the Marijuana Tax Stamp into legislation. 

Little doubt America’s first billionaire had, by 1937, not solely the president, however a lot of the legislative department of the USA in his pocket. Again in 1899, simply as Rockefeller was changing into America’s first billionaire, a cartoonist named Horace Taylor drew a cartoon with an enormous, 500 foot tall Rockefeller selecting up the white home and holding it in his hand, with a thousand oil drums surrounding congress within the background. It was titled “What a Humorous Little Authorities!” and may be discovered on-line to at the present time in a dozen totally different locations with a easy Google Picture search. That is the fact that one must ignore if one had been to faux that it’s inconceivable that the hemp substitute industries didn’t use their affect to make hemp unlawful – or to maintain it unlawful – or to suppose your complete challenge irrelevant except an precise smoking gun was produced. The truth that that they had the motive, the means and the chance must be sufficient for most individuals. 

In conclusion, hemp ethanol is presumably the one viable carbon detrimental renewable vitality supply, and the one factor able to reversing the greenhouse impact and saving the world. We do it – and us – a disservice to disregard the proof for this factor of the hemp financial system. Hemp is our co-evolutionary plant associate – it deserves a good shake, and a complete evaluation of it’s environmental and financial potential. 

For individuals who want to be taught extra about hemp ethanol, I counsel starting with this text right here:

https://www.cannabisculture.com/content material/2020/01/29/hemp-can-still-save-the-world/